The Adjamé Market in Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire. Photo credit: Wikimedia/Zenman (CC BY-SA 3.0)
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|NEXT COTE D’IVOIRE ELECTIONS
October 31, 2020
December 2021 (due)
October 2023 (due)
|PAST COTE D’IVOIRE ELECTIONS
October 13, 2018
December 18, 2016
October 25, 2015
Cote d’Ivoire will hold a presidential election on October 31, 2020.
Cote d’Ivoire’s democratization began in 1990 with the country’s first multi-party elections that year. Until 1999, the country had stability and prosperity. Félix Houphouët-Boigny, who served as Côte d’Ivoire’s president from independence in 1960 until his death in 1993, managed to keep the various factions somewhat calm. However, political struggles following his death and two civil wars – first beginning in 1999 and the second ending in 2011 – created political instability, and the political climate remains tense.
Much of the tension has to to with questions of national identity. Houpouët-Boigny encouraged immigrant laborers from neighboring Burkina Faso, and now Burkinabés, as these families are called, constitute 30 percent of the country’s population. As a result, in the mid- and late-1990s, politicians pushed the xenophobic idea of Ivoirité, a concept that imagines national identity as fundamentally southern and Christian, which has sparked both political tensions and violent conflict.
The personalities gearing up to contest this year’s presidential election have been fixtures in Cote d’Ivoire’s politics since the death of Houphouët-Boigny.
Following Houphouët-Boigny’s death, Henri Konan Bédié, then speaker of the National Assembly and a member of PDCI-RDA, became president after a brief struggle with then-Prime Minister (and current president) Alassane Ouattara, a technocrat who had joined PDCI-RDA. During that election, Bedié invoked Ivoirité and claimed that Ouattara, a Muslim from the north, was not truly Ivoirian. However, a 1999 deposed Bedié and kicked off the first of two civil wars that continued until 2011.
Following the 1999 coup, Laurent Gbagbo, a long-time opposition leader and co-founder of the socialist Ivorian Popular Front, became president. Because of a new law banning candidates with parents born outside of Cote d’Ivoire, authorities blocked Ouattara from running in the 2000 election, even after he produced documentation that both of his parents were born in-country. Gbagbo and his supporters doubled down on Ivoirité and faced accusations of attacking Muslims and northerners during his tenure in office.
Gbagbo subsequently lost the 2010 election to Ouattara, but he refused to step down. The surrounding violence between supporters of Gbagbo, a Christian from the south, and Ouattara, a Muslim from the north, led to 3,000 deaths and half a million displaced people. Gbagbo was subsequently arrested and charged with war crimes by the International Criminal Court (the court acquitted him in 2019, but the prosecution is appealing the verdict and Gbagbo therefore has not been able to leave Belgium.
In contrast, Ouattara won re-election in 2015 in relatively peaceful and credible polls. Ouattara’s coalition holds a majority in parliament, and furthermore won the 2018 local elections.
After a tumultuous few months, Outtara announced in August that he would in fact run for a controversial third term. For background: in March 2020, after months of speculation, Ouattara announced that he would not in fact seek re-election, in contrast to other leaders in the region who seek to stay in power beyond term limits (he had previously said that he was eligible to run for a third term because the new constitution reset term limits). His party planned to back Amadou Gon Coulibaly, the prime minister and a Ouattara ally, but Coulibaly subsequently died of a heart attack in July. Following the death of his protege, Ouattara announced that he would run for a third term, sparking protests. Other candidates have called Ouattara’s candidacy unconstitutional.
Bédié, age 86, has announced that he will run. Gbagbo remains a wildcard – the International Criminal Court paved the way for him to return to Cote d’Ivoire, and if he does, it will impact the election, although it is not clear exactly how. His party announced that Pascal Affi N’Guessan, a close associate of Gbagbo, would be its presidential candidate. Bédie has said that he and Gbagbo have each of their parties has agreed to back the other in the event of a second round against Ouattara.
Rebel leader and former prime minister Guillaume Soro is also running, but he currently lives in exile in France and has furthermore been convicted in absentia of embezzlement and fined $7 million after breaking ranks with Ouattara, his former ally. It is unclear whether he will return to Cote d’Ivoire for the election.
RFI (August 7, 2020): Côte d’Ivoire’s Ouattara to run for third term, opposition united in protest
BBC (July 8, 2020): Ivory Coast PM Amadou Gon Coulibaly dies after cabinet meeting
Al Jazeera (June 22, 2020): ICC hears prosecutor’s appeal against Laurent Gbagbo’s acquittal
Reuters (June 21, 2020): Ivory Coast Ex-President Bedie Says He Will Run in 2020 Election
RFI (May 29, 2020): Gbabgo’s release risks shaking up Cote d’Ivoire’s presidential election
Jessica Moody, African Arguments (May 5, 2020): Ouattara’s out, but whoever wins in Côte d’Ivoire, many won’t be happy.
David Bruckmeier, Quartz (March 13, 2020): Côte d’Ivoire’s president rules out a third term, but it’s no guarantee elections won’t get messy
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Updated August 10, 2020