The Year Ahead

Overview of 2023 Elections

Only two G20 countries are due to hold national elections in 2023: Turkey and Argentina, although snap elections are possible in several countries. Argentina also has a busy calendar of gubernatorial elections throughout the year.

Next year will be more eventful, with lots of G20 elections: the United States, India, Russia (though that election will likely be neither free nor fair), South Africa, Mexico, and Indonesia will all hold elections that determine who runs the government. In addition, South Korea holds key midterm legislative elections 2024, and the United Kingdom could hold general elections, which are due by January 2025 but could happen sooner given that the UK often votes in May. In addition, European Parliament elections take place in 2024, and Japan’s governing LDP holds leadership elections, which determine who serves as prime minister.

Other key elections in 2023 include Nigeria, Estonia, Finland, Turkey, Greece, Spain, Poland Bangladesh, and the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Bold indicates an election that determines who runs the government.

January 2023

January 8

Benin Legislative Elections

January 13 and 14

Czech Republic Presidential Election

January 14

Kazakhstan Senate Elections

January 15

Pakistan, Local Elections in Karachi and Hyderabad

January 18

Antigua and Barbuda Snap Elections

January 20

Tunisia Legislative Runoffs

Trinidad and Tobago Indirect Presidential Election (by parliament)

January 21

Slovakia Referendum on Early Elections

January 27-28

Czech Republic Presidential Runoff

January 29

Austria, Lower Austria State Elections

Date TBD (due in or by January 2023)

Lebanon Indirect Presidential Election (by parliament)

February 2023

February 5

Cyprus Presidential Election

Monaco Parliamentary Elections

Ecuador Regional and Local Elections

February 12

Cyprus Presidential Runoff

Germany, Berlin State Elections

Italy, Lazio and Lombardy Regional Elections

February 16

India, State Elections in Tripura

February 19

Bangladesh Indirect Presidential Election (by parliament – largely symbolic role)

February 24

Djibouti Legislative Elections

February 25

Nigeria General Elections

February 27

India, State Elections in Nagaland and Meghalaya

February 28

United States, Mayoral Election in Chicago

Date TBD (due in or by February 2023)

Jamaica Local Elections (long overdue – date not set yet – additional delays possible)

March 2023

March 5

Estonia General Elections

Lithuania Local Elections

Liechtenstein Local Elections

Austria, Carinthia State Elections

March 7

Micronesia Parliamentary Elections

March 9

Nepal Indirect Presidential Election (by parliament – largely ceremonial role)

March 11

Nigeria, Gubernatorial Elections in Most States

March 12

Cameroon Indirect Senate Elections (by members of municipal councils)

March 15

Netherlands Provincial Council and Water Authority Elections

March 19

Montenegro Presidential Election (snap parliamentary elections possible)

Kazakhstan Snap Parliamentary Elections

March 25

Australia, New South Wales State Elections

March 26

Turkmenistan Parliamentary and Local Elections

April 2023

April 2

Finland General Elections (snap elections possible)

Bulgaria Snap Parliamentary Elections (fifth election in two years)

Andorra Parliamentary Elections

Montenegro Presidential Runoff

Switzerland, Cantonal Elections in Geneva, Ticino, and Lucerne

April 2-3, 2023

Italy, Friuli-Venezia Giulia Regional and Local Elections

April 3, 2023

Canada, Provincial Elections in Prince Edward Island

April 9

Japan Unified Local Elections (First Stage) and various gubernatorial elections

April 16

Argentina, Provincial Elections in Neuquén and Río Negro

April 20

Bhutan National Assembly Elections (upper house)

April 23

Austria, Salzburg State Elections

Kosovo Partial Local Elections

Japan, Unified Local Elections, Second Stage

April 24

British Virgin Islands Assembly Elections

April 25

Sri Lanka Local Elections

April 29

New Zealand, Niue General Elections

April 30

Paraguay Presidential, Legislative, and Gubernatorial Elections

Uzbekistan Constitutional Referendum

May 2023

May 4

United Kingdom, Local Elections in Some Parts of England

May 7

Argentina, Provincial Elections in Jujuy, Misiones and La Rioja

Chile Constitutional Council Elections

May 10

India, State Elections in Karnataka

May 13

Mauritania Legislative and Local Elections

Gambia Local Elections

May 14

Turkey Presidential and Legislative Elections

Thailand General Elections

Albania Local Elections

Germany, Bremen State Elections and Local Elections in Schleswig-Holstein

Argentina, Provincial Elections in La Pampa, San Juan, Salta, Tucumán and Tierra del Fuego

Pakistan, Provincial Elections in Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

May 18

United Kingdom, Local Elections in Northern Ireland

May 21

Greece Parliamentary Elections

Timor-Leste Parliamentary Elections

May 27

Mauritania Legislative and Local Runoffs

May 28

Spain Local Elections and Various Regional Elections

May 29

Canada, Alberta Provincial Elections

May 31

Latvia Indirect Presidential Election (by parliament)

Date TBD (due in or by May 2023)

Greece Local Elections

Tunisia Local Elections

June 2023

June 4

Guinea-Bissau Legislative Elections

Mexico, Some Gubernatorial Elections

Argentina, Provincial Legislative Elections in Corrientes

June 11

Montenegro Snap Parliamentary Elections

Luxembourg Local Elections

Argentina, Provincial Elections in San Luis

June 12

Guyana Local Elections

June 18

Argentina, Provincial Elections in Córdoba

June 24

Sierra Leone Presidential and Legislative Elections

June 25

Guatemala General Elections

Spain, Regional Elections in Various Regions

Date TBD (due in or by June 2023)

Mali Local Elections

Tonga Local Elections

July 2023

July 23

Cambodia Parliamentary Elections

Date TBD (due in or by July 2023)

Zimbabwe General Elections

Sudan General Elections (tentative)

August 2023

August 13

Argentina Presidential Primary

August 27

Guatemala General Election Runoffs

Date TBD (due in or by August 2023)

Burma Parliamentary Elections (proposed – tentative, post-coup, widely considered likely to be a sham)

Gabon Presidential, Legislative, and Local Elections

Eswatini Parliamentary and Local Elections

September 2023

September 9

Maldives Presidential Election

September 10

Russia, Gubernatorial and Local Elections in Some Regions (including Moscow mayor)

September 11

Norway Local Elections

September 24

Argentina, Provincial Elections in Mendoza and Entre Ríos

September 30

Slovakia Snap Parliamentary Elections

Date TBD (due in or by September 2023)

Tuvalu General Elections

Singapore Presidential Election (largely ceremonial role)

Armenia, Local Elections in Yerevan

October 2023

October 2

Canada, Prince Edward Island Provincial Elections

October 3

Canada, Manitoba Provincial Elections and Northwest Territories Territorial Elections

October 8

Luxembourg General Elections

Germany, Hesse and Bavaria State Elections

October 10

Liberia Presidential and Legislative Elections

October 11

Mozambique Local Elections

October 12

Pakistan General Elections (snap elections possible)

October 14

New Zealand General Elections

October 22

Argentina Presidential and Legislative Elections

Switzerland Federal Parliamentary Elections

Venezuela Opposition Presidential Primary

October 29

Ukraine Parliamentary Elections (due)

Colombia Regional Elections

October 30

Philippines Village Elections

Date TBD (due in or by October 2023)

Bhutan Parliamentary Elections

Bulgaria Local Elections

Finland, Åland Elections

Moldova Local Elections

Israel Local Elections

Oman Consultative Assembly Elections

United Arab Emirates Federal National Council Elections (indirect elections, advisory body with limited powers)

Portugal, Regional Elections in Madeira

Dominica Indirect Presidential Election (by parliament)

November 2023

November 6

Iraq Regional Elections

November 11

Poland Parliamentary and Local Elections (due – earlier elections possible)

Nigeria, Gubernatorial Elections in Imo State, Kogi State, and Bayelsa State

November 18

Kurdistan (Iraq) Presidential and Parliamentary Elections (part of Iraq but effectively independent in terms of government)

November 19

Argentina Presidential Runoff

Date TBD (due in or by November 2023)

Madagascar Presidential Election

Marshall Islands Parliamentary Elections

Mali Legislative Elections

India, State Elections in Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, and Mizoram

Hong Kong District Council Elections

Chile Constitutional Referendum (expected)

December 2023

December 10

Spain General Elections (due – early elections possible)

December 12

Switzerland Indirect Presidential Election (by parliament)

December 20

Democratic Republic of the Congo Presidential and Legislative Elections

Trinidad and Tobago Local Elections

Date TBD (due in or by December 2023)

Bangladesh Parliamentary Elections

India, State Elections in Rajasthan and Telangana

Philippines Village Elections

Togo Legislative and Regional Elections

Andorra Local Elections

Date TBD (due or expected in 2023)

Haiti Presidential and Legislative Elections (delayed from November 7, 2021, no new date set)

Libya Presidential and Legislative Elections (long overdue)

Palestinian Authority Presidential and Legislative Elections (long overdue)

Malaysia, State Elections in Six States: Due in 2023 (could be held in July)

Côte d’Ivoire Local Elections

Comoros Gubernatorial Elections

Ghana Local Elections

Guinea Local Elections

Guinea-Bissau Local Elections

Belarus Local Elections

India, Elections in Jammu and Kashmir

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